Ohio State University
Top Ohio State Discoveries:
Discovery and Impact of the Release of Genetically Engineered Organisms (GEOs) into the Environment
The discovery and its impact – Dr. Snow discovered that artificial genes (i.e., transgenes) that have been inserted into the genomes of crop plants are able to spread to wild plants much more widely than was previously believed. As a result of her findings, advice from ecologists is being sought to help with the design and evaluation of genetically engineered plants. This work has important implications for modern agriculture, food security in developing countries, and international regulations pertaining to safe uses of genetic engineering in agriculture.
Specifically, Dr. Snow’s work showed that:
Crop genes are able to enter and persist in wild and weedy plant populations for many years, contrary to what was previously assumed.
Transgenic crop genes behave in the same way as normal crop genes when they disperse to other species, and their presence does not inhibit the growth or reproduction of wild and weedy plants.
Specific transgenic traits, such as resistance to insect damage, can allow weedy plants to become much more successful than was previously thought. In other words, a transgene that is beneficial for a crop plant could have the unintended effect of helping related weedy or wild plants become “superweeds”.
Several OSU press releases about the significance of this research are available at: http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/esagmo.htm. Dr. Snow was recognized as one of fifty leaders in science and technology by Scientific American Magazine in 2002, when she also received a Distinguished Scholar Award from OSU. In addition, her study of transgenic, weedy sunflowers was ranked as one of the top 100 science stories in 2002 by Discover Magazine.
Dr. Snow’s original, interdisciplinary research is shaping efforts to assess the environmental risks and benefits of using biotechnology in agriculture. The impact of this work on society stems from the fact that independent, unrestricted research is essential for the development and acceptance of new technologies. Researchers at public research universities are in a unique position to be able answer key questions, unfettered by possible conflicts of interest or censorship, to allow new technologies to move forward in a safe and responsible manner. Dr. Snow’s recent discoveries, combined with her efforts to communicate the importance of ecology in scientific risk assessment, have already had a very positive effect on national and international biosafety policies.
2. Names of the scientists who were responsible for this discovery – Dr. Allison Snow led a team of researchers who included Dr. Loren Rieseberg, Indiana University; Dr. Diana Pilson, University of Nebraska; and Dr. Helen Alexander, University of Kansas. The various contributions of these collaborators can be identified by examining the publications and funded grants listed on Dr. Snow’s curriculum vitae.
3. Dates when the research was done: This research was carried out over a ten-year period, starting in 1993 and culminating in a series of publications from 1997-2003.
3-D Modelling Software
One example of a faculty member in the Knowlton School who has done research that has radically affected the design professions would be Professor Christos Yessios. He did the initial research for the development Form*Z, a world-renowned 3-D modelling software, while in the School of Architecture at Ohio State in the late 80s and early 90s. Professor Yessios went on to develop one of the leading 3-D modelling software companies in the world. Form*Z is now used by the vast majority of architectural and design firms in this country and the developed world. For a more detailed analysis, refer to History of Form*Z, by Pierluigi Serraino in The IT Revolution in Architecture Series published by Birkhauser – Publishers for Architecture in 2002.
Discovery of the Bursa of Fabricius in Birds that Contributed to the Discovery of Cellular Immunology in Humans and Mammals
The bursa of Fabricius, an organ in immature birds that produces B-lymphocytes, was discovered at Ohio State in 1955 as part of the graduate studies of a student named Bruce Glick. A number of seminal experiments based on the chicken bursa of Fabricius and its derivatives have provided opportunities for the study of biological problems of broad significance, including:
analysis of angiogenesis and programmed cell death
B-cell development and mechanisms of immunoglobulin gene diversification
stem cell biology, gene transfer and transplantation
targeted gene deletion and mutation in cultured bursal-derived (DT40) cells
Discovery of New Human and Zoonotic Animal Gastrointestinal Viruses and Vaccines
Professor Linda Saif is known nationally and internationally for her work on enteric viruses, including rotaviruses, caliciviruses and coronaviruses, which cause mortality and morbidity in both food-producing animals and humans. During the past 30 years, she has identified new intestinal viruses and developed diagnostic tests and research methods for working with them in the laboratory. Saif has been hailed by her colleagues as “the world’s foremost authority on the immune response of newborns to intestinal infections” and “the most outstanding virologist and immunologist in the research field that deals with gastrointestinal viruses.” She is also credited with discovering the potential of enteric viral infections in animals to infect human populations in epidemic proportions.
Dr. Saif has managed to bridge the gap between basic and applied research. While fulfilling OARDC’s mission to address the health needs of animal agriculture, she has made important discoveries that contribute to human health as well. One example is her ongoing effort to develop safe and effective vaccines for rotavirus diarrhea, which kills nearly one million children every year.
Development of the Slow Moving Vehicle Emblem to Prevent Transportation Fatalities
In the late 1950s a 10-year retrospective study of fatal tractor accidents was conducted by Walter McClure and Ben Lamp, both of the Department of Agricultural Engineering at The Ohio State University (AEOSU), to understand the nature and causes of tractor related fatalities. The research indicated a significant number of fatalities related to highway travel of slow-moving vehicles (SMVs). A research proposal written by Ken Harkness (AEOSU) and funded through the Automotive Safety Foundation (1961-62) further focused understanding of SMV accidents and resulted in the development of a unique SMV emblem. Early data estimated that 65 percent of the motor vehicle accidents involving SMVs were rear-end collisions. The Ohio State Highway Patrol, county sheriffs, and municipal police cooperated in the research by gathering detailed data on 708 SMV accidents.
In 1962, under the supervision of Ken Harkness, the design and testing of the SMV emblem was completed. A 1/16 scale highway simulator had been constructed to test human recognition rates of different shapes and colors mounted on simulated SMVs. After testing various designs, a triangular-shaped emblem with a 12-inch-high fluorescent orange center and three 1 3/4 inch wide reflective borders was determined to be the most effective design. The fluorescent center was designed to be seen by day, and the reflective borders were designed to reflect the headlights of automobiles during nighttime driving.
The Goodyear Rubber and Tire Company sponsored initial public exposure to the SMV emblem in 1962. An emblem mounted on the back of a farm wagon and towed by a Ford Tractor made a 3,689-mile trip from Portland, Maine to San Diego, California.
The first formal introduction of the SMV emblem was at a University of Iowa Invitational Safety Seminar in 1962. Carlton Zink of Deere and Company then became an avid promoter of the SMV emblem and played a major role in the adoption of the emblem by the American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE).
In 1963 Novice G. Fawcett, President of The Ohio State University, dedicated the SMV emblem to the public. Also in 1963 the Agricultural Engineering Journal printed its first article with color illustrations about the SMV emblem. The National Safety Council promoted the adoption of the emblem and awarded a Certificate of Commendation to Ken Harkness of The Ohio State University.
In less than two years from the emblem’s first date of availability, Nebraska, Michigan, Ohio, and Vermont adopted legislation requiring the emblem to be used on SMVs. OSU Extension State Safety Leader, Bill Stuckey, spearheaded the education for adoption of the SMV emblem in Ohio. In 1967 the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) adopted the SMV emblem as a CSA Standard. In 1971 the SMV emblem became the first ASAE Standard to be adopted as a national standard by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI).
In recognition for the research and development of the SMV emblem, Ken Harkness was selected as a Charter Member of the Ohio Safety Hall of Fame in 1992. While it is unknown the exact impact this emblem has made to society, it has created a safer environment when the motoring public shares the roadway with agricultural equipment and horse-drawn buggies.
In 1992 the American Society of Agricultural Engineers designated the development of the SMV emblem as an ASAE Historic Landmark.
Resistance to Viruses that Threatened the U.S. Corn Crop
In the early 1960’s an unknown malady of corn swiftly struck the southern portion of the Corn Belt states, causing significant losses and threatening the entire Corn Belt. For example, losses reached 90% over 15,000 in Southern Ohio in 1962 and losses approached $6 million over the state of Ohio by 1964. The Ohio State University and USDA recruited a team of scientists to the Wooster campus to solve the problem, a unique state-federal response to attack a problem with substantial economic implications for the United States. Two heretofore unknown, insect-borne maize viruses were discovered, including maize chlorotic dwarf virus, which belonged to an entirely new class of RNA viruses. The discovery of these viruses was critical to finding disease tolerant and resistant germ plasm and the release of new corn varieties for use by farmers in the Corn Belt. A major source of resistance to these viruses was a new species teosinte (Zea diploperennis), discovered by members of the research team by making collections of wild species in Mexico. This finding was based on the assumption that genes for resistance could be found in wild species populations in the center of origin for maize, which proved to be true. Subsequent studies on the ecology of these viruses led to additional disease control strategies and an integrated approach to stopping the spread of disease to the rest of the Corn Belt. Had these scientists not been successful, untold losses to the U.S. corn crop were likely, resulting in economic hardships to the nation’s most important food growing region. Key players were OSU virologist Don Gordon, electron microscopist Oscar Bradfute and entomologist Lowell Nault and USDA virologist Roy Gingery, disease ecologist Ray Louie and corn breeder William Findley.
The Discovery of Calcium Salts of Fatty Acids as a High-Energy Supplement for Ruminants and Specifically for Dairy Cattle
After WW II, rapid progress in genetics of dairy cattle took place, attributable to the commercial application of artificial insemination, using sires of superior genetic potential for milk yield. The higher potential for milk yield demanded increased amounts of digestible energy be fed to the cows. With concomitant progress in corn production, corn was readily available at economic prices. The result was that dairy cattle, animals that are highly dependent on forages for normal digestive function, general health, and normal milk yield, were fed rations containing too much rapidly-fermentable starch. The result was cows that became fat rather than yielding higher amounts of milk, the milk was low in fat content (the basis for payment at that time), cows became fat, and often suffered off-feed and foot problems.
It was about this time that I arrived at OARDC (1967) to undertake studies on fat metabolism in dairy cattle. We first quantified the role of dietary fat in the synthesis of milk by using radiotracer studies; we showed that dietary fat provided 50-60 % of the fat secreted in milk. We then began studies to devise feeding systems to increase the amount of fat in commercial dairy rations (at that time rarely more than 3 % of the total feed dry matter). It was known at that time that many dietary fats interfered with normal digestion of fiber by the ruminal microorganisms, and that supplemental fats also caused milk to be secreted with low fat content. In our studies we found that the amount of calcium in the diet could influence the metabolism of the fat in the rumen and the digestibility of the fat. It was generally thought that fat and calcium reacted in the digestive tract to form insoluble salts (or ‘soaps’) that did not interfere with normal fiber digestion.
DEVELOPMENT OF THE DISCOVERY
With the collaboration of Post-Doctoral Research Fellow Tom Jenkins, we carried out studies that attempted to increase the rate of calcium soap formation in the digestive tract, without great success. At that time (late 1979) I began to play in my mind with the idea of providing the fat to the animals as preformed calcium soaps. Dr. Jenkins explored the literature for chemical processes that we could use in the laboratory to make soaps and we devised in vitro experiments to test the effect of calcium soaps vs. pure fats on rumen microbial metabolism. The first experiment was a resounding success (Palmquist, D.L. and T.C. Jenkins. Calcium soaps as a fat supplement in dairy cattle feeding. Proceedings, XII World Congress on Diseases of Cattle, pp. 477-481, 1982); based on knowledge of ruminant digestive physiology, I postulated that the calcium soaps would be digestible by cattle, but it remained to be demonstrated. Using cattle with intestinal cannulae, together with radiotracers to quantify digesta flow, we demonstrated superior digestibility of the calcium soaps. (Jenkins, T.C., and D.L. Palmquist. Effect of fatty acids or calcium soaps on rumen and total nutrient digestibility of dairy rations. J. Dairy Sci. 67:978-986, 1984). The final hurdle was to make enough of the material for feeding trials with lactating cows. We searched for commercial partners and were encouraged to apply for a patent to protect any commercial venture. With assistance from OSURF we applied for a patent, based on limited data, in June, 1981. After several requests from the patent office for supporting data, requiring rather extensive studies, we received patent # 4,642,317 on 10 Feb., 1987. This patent was licensed by OSURF to Balfour Manufacturing Co., Ltd, an Irish corporation. Their subsidiary, Volac, Ltd of Cambridge, England, had initiated development of a commercial product in 1982. Balfour, in turn, licensed Church and Dwight Co., Inc., Princeton, NJ for manufacturing and marketing in North America.
First manufacturing plant in the US for calcium soaps built at Old Fort, OH, 1987.
Sales by Church and Dwight, 1987-Dec, 2002, estimated at $360 million
Second major US marketer of calcium soaps headquartered in Fairlawn, OH
Changed the way that high-producing cows are fed
Maintain high energy intake for high milk yield
Maximize forage feeding
Calcium soaps are the standard in the world for feeding high-producing cows. All other products are compared to our original product.
D. L. Palmquist, Professor, Department of Dairy Science, OARDC and OSU
Thomas C. Jenkins, Post-Doctoral Fellow, Dept. of Dairy Science, OARDC
(currently Professor of Animal Science, Clemson University).
June, 1981—patent application filed
Feb. 10, 1987—patent awarded
Development and Proof of an Automated Cleaned-in-Place (CIP) Valve for Dairy Factories
Three prototype automated valves were developed and tested using radioactive tracers (Ca-45) in the middle 1950’s. One of these prototypes was proven to be cleanable by an automated cleaning system and was installed in an Ohio dairy plant about 1956 to provide the first automated cleaning system for dairy plants.
Impact: This research enabled the dairy industry (and later the food and pharmaceutical industries) to fully automate dairy and other plants — which changed the course of an industry. Actually monetary value of this research cannot be estimated.
W. James Harper and Dale A. Seiberling.
Seiberling provided the engineering and Harper provided the radio-isotope methodology.
Use of Glacial Ice Cores and to Contribute to our Knowledge of Climate Change and Global Warming
Under the leadership of Lonnie G. Thompson and Ellen Mosley-Thompson the Ice Core Paleoclimate Research Group has grown over the last several decades to include seven senior level scientists along with postdoctoral scholars and both graduate and undergraduate students. The group has a distinguished history of conducting “cutting edge” science and has propelled ice coring out of the polar regions and up to ice fields covering the highest tropical and subtropical mountains. Their ice core collection has yielded a remarkable and priceless archive of Earth’s ancient climate and their collaboration has led to significant new findings and advanced our understanding of both natural and anthropogenic climate changes. They are respected colleagues in Geological Sciences (LGT) and Geography (EMT) as well as in the Byrd Polar Research Center.
In 1983 their team was the first to deploy a solar-powered ice core drilling system designed to operate above 18,000 feet without contaminating the surrounding environment. For the last two decades they have remained at the scientific forefront of ice core paleoclimatology by recovering ice cores from the Earth’s highest and most remote ice fields in an effort to assemble a global array of ice cores (from the equator to both poles). These ice core histories from Africa, Antarctica, Bolivia, China, Greenland, Peru, Russia and the United States make it possible to study processes linking the polar regions to the lower latitudes where human activities are most intense. The records contribute prominently to our ever-expanding knowledge of both the complex interactions within the Earth’s coupled climate system and the Earth’s climate history, the ultimate yardstick against which the significance of present and projected anthropogenic effects will be assessed.
These archives have provided the first ice core-derived evidence of both the “Little Ice Age” neoglacial and the Last Glacial Stage (> 15,000 years B.P.) in the tropics, have demonstrated that the current warming of globally average temperatures is enhanced at high elevations and that the last 50 years have been the warmest in the last 10,000 over the Tibetan Plateau. Using two decades of ice core data and aerial mapping, the Thompson’s team has documented that many the world’s ancient ice fields are melting away, most notably in the last half-century. In 1992 their team established at South Pole Station the most spatially extensive and longest running network measuring snow accumulation in Antarctica. The OSU team has continued to improve both its ice core drilling capabilities and camp infrastructure to ensure their future ability to work efficiently and effectively in the most remote and harsh frozen environments.
The OSU team’s ice core results have been published in more than 100 peer-reviewed journals, including twelve papers in Science and Nature. Their evidence for recent warming and ice retreat were included in the Proceedings of Congressional Record of the 107th Congress second session in 2002 under global warming as part of the energy legislation. In 2002 their NSF-funded research on Kilimanjaro was highlighted in more than 100 Newspaper articles. They have been featured in CNN Presents “America’s Best” and in A&E’s Investigative Reports special “Earth in the Hot Seat.” Their media exposure has extended to Chinese National television, National Geographic Society, and radio (BBC World Service, NPR’s Science Friday, Japan’s J-Wave) audiences.
Important Chemical Discoveries at Ohio State
Discovery and Use of Freons for Refrigeration and Air Conditioning
Studies by Professor A. L. Henne led to the worldwide use of freons in refrigeration and air-conditioning. The household refrigerator, a Afrigidaire,@ a Afrigerator@ and the Frigidaire Corporation (General Motors, Dayton, OH) have been part of the daily lives of millions of inhabitants of Planet Earth.
Determination of the structures of heparin, an excellent medicinal for control of blood clotting in humans and animals)
Under the direction of Professor M. L. Wolfrom, the structure and properties of heparin was studied extensively. Heparin is used worldwide for treatment of cardiac diseases, heart attacks, and related coronary disorders and during various surgical procedures.
Synthesis of benzenoid and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons which have cancer-producing activities
Professor M. S. Newman developed syntheses of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons that were tested for their physiological and biochemical effects at the University of Wisconsin and the National Institutes of Health. These studies led to a detailed understanding of carcinogenicity of aromatic compounds and led to legislation restricting their use.
Discovery of nitro propellants for rockets
Professor H. Shechter developed aliphatic polynitro compounds for use in solid fuel rockets by the U. S. Armed Forces. Over 21 percent of the rocket propellant used in Polaris submarine missiles (U. S. Navy) was manufactured by Ohio State methods.
Development of Hydrogen as fuel
Professor Herrick L. Johnston, a cryogenics expert who specialized in studies of liquifying hydrogen developed for the first time programs for use of hydrogen as a fuel for aircrafts and rockets.
Practical syntheses of boron hydrides
Professor S. G. Shore developed practical syntheses of boron hydrides, which are used to make computer chips and as burning-rate modifiers for solid fuels in rocket motors and propulsion devices.
Development and application of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, FT/ICR (A. G. Marshall)
Professor A, G, Marshall was a co-inventor of FT/ICR spectrometry which is used for environmental and biological analyses. Much of the instrument development of this technique took place during his tenure at Ohio State.
Synthesis of dodecahedrane
Professor Leo Paquette and his research group reported for the first time synthesis of dodecahedrane, a molecule shaped like a soccer ball. There are five platonic solids, tetrahedrane, cubane, octahedrane, dodecahedrane and icosahedrane and these symmetrical structures have been held in high esteem since the ancient Greeks. The chemical methodology that was developed is useful for synthesis of drugs, polymers and other organic materials
Discovery of the 22nd natural amino acid, L-pyrrolysine
Professors Michael Chan and Joseph Krzycki discovered the 22nd amino acid, L-pyrrolysine. There are only 22 amino acids encoded in DNA in nature. The 2lst was identified in 1985.
Research into the Role of Gastrointestinal Peptides and Disease
In 1955, two Ohio State surgeons, Robert M. Bollinger, Sr. and Edwin H. Ellison reported two cases of unusual gastrointestinal ulceration and pancreatic islet cell tumors. Subsequent research showed the cause of the unusual syndrome was the secretion of the most powerful stimulant for gastric acid secretion, the hormone gastrin. The observation and subsequent research were considered seminal as it opened an entire new area of investigation on the role of gastrointestinal peptides and disease.
In 1957 the eponym Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome was coined and gave great recognition to the Ohio State University. Zollinger and Ellison recognized that the patients died from progressive ulcer disease unless the entire stomach was removed. This observation saved hundreds of lives of patients with this disease, including children. Subsequently many patients with the disease were identified and other tumors secreting a variety of gastrointestinal peptides were subsequently discovered. The magnitude of acid secretion in these patients and the radical nature of the only treatment was one of the reasons that scientists looked for better treatment of ulcers.
Subsequent research into better methods of controlling gastric acid secretion by basic scientists and pharmaceutical companies lead to the discovery of H2 receptor antagonists and later the proton pump inhibitors. You can now purchase these without a prescription. These powerful drugs eliminated the need for total gastrectomy in these patients and allowed surgeons to direct treatment to the tumor itself. Therefore in an indirect way the reported observation on two unique patients in Columbus, Ohio and at The Ohio State University stimulated additional research in the treatment of ulcers, which had tremendous socioeconomic impact. Our institution is still recognized as a leader in this field today and patients from all over the United States come here for treatment.
Psychological Influences on Health by Interactions with the Immune and Endocrine Systems
Working in the area of psychoneuroimmunology, Dr. Janice Kiecolt-Glaser has authored more than 160 articles, chapters, and books, most in collaboration with Dr. Ronald Glaser. Their studies have demonstrated important health consequences of stress, including slower wound healing and impaired vaccine responses in older adults; in addition, their programmatic work has focused on the ways in which personal relationships influence immune and endocrine function, and health.
Discovery of Somatic Gene Mutations in the Stroma of Breast Cancer Challenges Existing Paradigms in Cancer Genetics
For the last few decades, solid tumors like breast cancer were believed to be due to transformation of the epithelial cells. Virtually all studies looking for pathogenic genetic alterations in breast cancers during this time period were essentially performed on whole breast cancers or carefully dissected out epithelium. Yet, in the last 2 decades, it has been known that breast and other solid tumors were comprised of the epithelium and surrounding stroma. The normal appearing surrounding stroma, however, had always been assigned an innocent bystander status from the genetic point of view. Then in 2001 and 2002, the team led by Charis Eng, MD, PhD, which included postdoctoral fellows Keisuke Kurose, MD, PhD and Satoshi Matsumoto, MD, PhD, and Research Scientist Xiao-Ping Zhou, MD, PhD, discovered that genetic alterations and somatic mutations in essential tumor suppressor genes TP53 and PTEN can occur in the stroma as well. Further, the occurrence of PTEN and TP53 mutations was mutually exclusive. These observations, published in the November 2002 issue of Nature Genetics, provided evidence that the stroma was an active genetic partner in human breast carcinogenesis and will have a dramatic impact on the design of future therapies.
Feline Leukemia Virus Vaccine – First Vaccine for Viral-induced Cancer
History: The Retrovirus Research Program at The Ohio State University was organized in the early 1970’s with funds from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Special Cancer Virus Research Program, which was part of the Society’s “War Against Cancer.” Pioneering research in the Department of Veterinary Pathobiology (now Veterinary Biosciences) led to the development of the first commercially available vaccine against a feline retrovirus. The vaccine (LeukocellR) currently licensed to Pfizer Animal Health was the first marketed vaccine against feline leukemia virus (FeLV), a common and fatal infectious disease at the time of the discovery. Feline leukemia virus infection is a frequently occurring disease of major significance and manifested in a variety of clinical and pathologic forms from immune deficiency and secondary infections to fatal tumors of that spread due to cancerous lymphocytes. The infection occurs worldwide; it is estimated that 8 – 12 % of sick cats and 1 – 3 % of asymptomatic cats in the United States are infected. Researchers at The Ohio State University were sponsored by extramural research dollars from the National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Cancer Institute and other agencies discovered details of the pathogenesis of the virus infection and then subsequently produced the first vaccine.
Direct Impact of the Discovery of the Vaccine
· First commercially marketed vaccine against FeLV infection and disease
Demonstrated efficacy in preventing persistent viremia, lymphoid tumors caused by FeLV, and FeLV-associated diseases.
The only FeLV vaccine with the tumor-specific antigen FOCMA and proven FeLV tumor protection.
Prepared from an FeLV-transformed lymphoid cell line that releases soluble FeLV particles into cell culture medium, reducing the immunosuppressive effects of fully assembled, inactivated or live FeLV.
More than 50 million doses of LEUKOCELL vaccines sold.
Indirect Impact of Discovery
Over $14 million dollars in unencumbered royalties from the sale of the vaccine have been reinvested to develop the Center for Retrovirus Research. In 1989 The Ohio State University Administration officially recognized the Retrovirus Research Program as a University academic Center of Excellence that was designated The Center for Retrovirus Research. The founding mission of the Center was to act as a facilitator to faculty, graduate students, and post-doctoral scientists to assist in interdisciplinary investigations of problems relating to prevention and treatment of retrovirus diseases of animals and man. Subsequently, investigators from the Center formed a scientific program (RNA Oncogenic Virus Program) within the Comprehensive Cancer Center at the University. The RNA Oncogenic Virus (ROV) Program has evolved to the Viral Oncogenesis (VO) Program to reflect the expansion in program membership and the strengthening of the research scope. The motivation for extending the research base of the program was the realization that common signaling pathways and genetic mechanisms are the basis for widely divergent oncogenic viruses to cause cell immortalization and/or neoplastic transformation. Viral models have provided fundamental knowledge regarding mechanisms of cancer. Thus, much of the research in viral oncology has shifted from the study of viruses and their host cell interactions, to a greater focus on cell biology and the direct and indirect influence of virus infection on cell processes relating to protein expression and gene regulation
Formation of Chemical Abstracts Services and Worldwide Access to Chemical Knowledge
Chemical Abstracts began at the University of Illinois in 1907 and moved to OSU in 1909, at the request of Chemistry professor and later Dean of the Graduate School and Acting President (1939-1940) William McPherson. Although Chemical Abstracts now operates off campus since at least the 1970’s, its mission has remained steadfast: to describe and provide access to all of the information about chemistry in the entire world.
Its mission has expanded, in the words of its website, to “provide pathways to published research in the world’s journal and patent literature–virtually everything relevant to chemistry plus a wealth of information in the life sciences and a wide ranger of other scientific disciplines back to the beginning of the 20th century.” By connecting scientists and inventors to the work of other scientists and inventors, Chemical Abstracts has fueled the pace of discovery and invention.
Online Computer Library Center, Inc. (OCLC)
OCLC began at OSU in the Main Library in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. Sponsored by the Ohio College Association, its original purpose was to provide a computerized system of holdings among the approximately thirty members. By using a common computer system, participants expected to share cataloging, cooperate in acquisitions, and facilitate loans among libraries. OCLC changed its name and its location to an off-campus complex as it grew in size and purpose.
Today, OCLC’s WorldCat is the world’s largest library information resources. It has more than 900 million library records. Its users and members are worldwide. WorldCat not only provides information about books but also maps, websites, DVD’s, musical scores, photographs, and information and documentation that was “born digital.” If ours is “the age of information,” then OCLC is its principal gateway.