In the 60s developed an automated process for synthesizing peptides, which revolutionized protein chemistry, and has been used to make vaccines, hormones, pharmaceuticals, etc. His machine is now standard equipment for research.
In the 60s, developed methadone for treating heroin addicts. Dole’s approach to drug addiction as a chemical imbalance, rather than a moral failing, was novel at the time, and Rockefeller’s research hospital enabled him to carry out controversial work that invovled having (and administering) narcotics in the hospital.
At the Rockefeller’s Field Research Center, discovered that adult brains can generate new neurons.